Famous lecture by Columbia University's Porter R. Lee, President of the National Conference of Social Workers (USA), entitled 'Social Work as Cause and Function'.
See Mary Willcox Glenn (1937) 'Social Work as Cause and Function, and Other Papers. Porter R. Lee', Social Service Review 11(4): 739-740.
Also Carol Jarvis (2006) 'Function versus Cause: Moving Beyond Debate', Praxis 6 (3): 1-6. She writes in the abstract: "Two narratives – that of function, associated with Charity Organization Societies, and cause, associated with the settlement house movement – have strongly influenced the social work profession since its inception."